Ruby on Rails Tutorial读书笔记-1

作者: aguncn
发布时间:2015-07-13 11:25:21

 

只是怕忘了命令,全部撸一次,记个大概。。

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

安装Ruby之前,先要安装RVM:

 

curl -L https://get.rvm.io | bash –s

 

然后,安装一些依赖之后:

 

rvm install ruby version --with-openssl-dir=$HOME/.rvm/usr

 

之后安装Rails:

 

gem install rails --version 4.0.0 --no-ri --no-rdoc

 

创建Rails新程序:

 

rails new first_app

 

启动Rails测试服务器:

 

rails server –b 0.0.0.0

 

Rails产生静态资源文件:

 

rails generate controller StaticPages home help --no-test-framework

 

手动创造Rails之后,默认路由不是以资源方式定义的:

 

SampleApp: :Application. routes. draw do

root to: 'static_pages#home'

resources :users

resources :sessions, only: [:new, :create, :destroy]

match '/signup', to: 'users#new', via: 'get'

match '/help' , to: 'static_pages#help' , via: 'get'

end

 

新建的控制器内容都是空的:

 

class StaticPagesController < ApplicationController
def home
end
def help
end
end

 

其生成的视图也只是一个提示性的HTML:

 

<h1>StaticPages#home</h1>
<p>Find me in app/views/static_pages/home.html.erb</p>

 

Rails提供了特别的布局文件application.html.erb,可以提供网页相同的结构:

 

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Ruby on Rails Tutorial Sample App | <%= yield( :title) %></title>
<%= stylesheet_link_tag "application" , media: "all" ,
"data-turbolinks-track" => true %>
<%= javascript_include_tag "application" , "data-turbolinks-track" => true %>
<%= render 'layouts/shim’>

</head>


<body>
<%= render 'layouts/header' %>
<div >
<% flash. each do | key, value| %>
<div ><%= value %></div>
<% end %>
<%= yield %>
<%= render 'layouts/footer' %>
<%= debug( params) if Rails. env. development? %>
</div></body>
</html>

 

Rails除了提供内置方法供我们在视图中使用,我们还可以自建帮助方法,在视图中使用。

 

app/helper/static_pages_helper.rb

app/helper/application_helper.rb

 

Rails中创建LINK的链接及图片:

 

<%= link_to "Sign in" , '#' %> 第一个是链接文本,第二个是链接地址

<%= link_to "About" , about_path %>

<%= link_to image_tag( "rails.png" , alt: "Rails" ), 'http://rubyonrails.org/' %>

 

asset pipeline的目录及自定义样式文件:

 

app/assets/stylesheets

app/assets/stylesheets/custom.css.scss

 

静态资源目录:

 

• app/assets
• lib/assets
• vendor/assets

 

局部视图:

 

<%= render 'layouts/shim' %>

app/views/layouts/_shim.html.erb

 

生成用户模型:

 

rails generate model User name:string email:string

 

进行数据迁移:

 

bundle exec rake db:migrate

 

入库前进行数据有效性验证(电邮不重复,密码加密码,长度不小于3,用户名不超过50)

 

class User < ActiveRecord::Base

  before_save {self.email = email.downcase }

  validates :name, presence: true, length: {maximum: 50 }

  VALID_EMAIL_REGEX = /\A[\w+\-.]+@[a-z\d\-.]+\.[a-z]+\z/i

  validates :email, presence: true, format: { with: VALID_EMAIL_REGEX }, uniqueness: { case_sensitive: false }

  has_secure_password

  validates :password, length: { minimum: 3 }

end

 

确保电邮唯一性的方法:

 

生成索引:

rails generate migration add_index_to_users_email

修改迁移文件:

class AddIndexToUsersEmail < ActiveRecord: :Migration
def change
add_index :users, :email, unique: true
end
end

 

安全密码实现过程:

GEM需求

gem 'bcrypt-ruby' , '3.0.1'

bundle install.

数据库增加新列:

rails generate migration add_password_digest_to_users password_digest:string

bundle exec rake db:migrate

 

用户注册表单:

 

<%= form_for(@user) do |f| %>

      <%= render 'shared/error_messages' %>

      <%= f.label :姓名  %>

      <%= f.text_field :name  %>

 

      <%= f.label :邮箱  %>

      <%= f.text_field :email  %>

 

      <%= f.label :password  %>

      <%= f.password_field :password  %>

 

      <%= f.label :password_confirmation, "Confirmation"  %>

      <%= f.password_field :password_confirmation  %>

 

      <%= f.submit "Create my account", class: "btn btn-large btn-primary"  %>

      <% end %>

 

资源模型的控制器标准操作:

 

class UsersController < ApplicationController

  def show

    @user = User.find(params[:id])

  end

  def new

    @user = User.new

  end

  def create

    @user = User.new(user_params)

    if @user.save

      flash[:success] = "Welcome to the Sample App!"

      redirect_to @user

    else

      render 'new'

    end

  end

  private

 

    def user_params

      params.require(:user).permit(:name, :email, :password, :password_confirmation)

    end

end

 

自定义出错信息,放在app/views/shared/_error_messages.html.erb

 

<% if @user. errors. any? %>
<div id="error_explanation">
<div >
The form contains <%= pluralize( @user. errors. count, "error" ) %>.
</div>
<ul>
<% @user. errors. full_messages. each do | msg| %>
<li>* <%= msg %></li>
<% end %>
</ul>
</div>
<% end %>

 

生成session控制器语法

 

rails generate controller Sessions --no-test-framework

 

登陆时的FORM

 

<%= form_for( :session, url: sessions_path) do | f| %>
<%= f. label :email %>
<%= f. text_field :email %>
<%= f. label :password %>
<%= f. password_field :password %>
<%= f. submit "Sign in" , class: "btn btn-large btn-primary" %>
<% end %>

 

用户包含sessionHelper(正常时只能VIEW用,而CONTROLLER用要明文INCLUE)

 

class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base

  # Prevent CSRF attacks by raising an exception.

  # For APIs, you may want to use :null_session instead.

  protect_from_forgery with: :exception

  include SessionsHelper

end

 

为表增加新字段,且为此字段增加索引:

 

rails generate migration add_remember_token_to_users

db/migrate/[timestamp]_add_remember_token_to_users.rb

class AddRememberTokenToUsers < ActiveRecord: :Migration
def change
add_column :users, :remember_token, :string(要自己加哟)
add_index :users, :remember_token(要自己加哟)
end
end

 

 

 

生成token的回调函数:

 

class User < ActiveRecord: :Base
before_save { self. email = email. downcase }
before_create :create_remember_token
.
def User. new_remember_token
SecureRandom. urlsafe_base64
end
def User. encrypt( token)
282
Digest: :SHA1. hexdigest( token. to_s)
end
private
def create_remember_token
self. remember_token = User. encrypt( User. new_remember_token)
end
end

 

 

<header >

  <div >

    <div >

        <%= link_to "Autop", '#', id: "logo" %>

        <nav>

          <ul >

            <li><%= link_to "Home", root_path %></li>

            <li><%= link_to "Help", help_path %></li>

            <% if signed_in? %>

              <li><%= link_to "Users", '#' %></li>

              //<li id="fat-menu" >

                //<a data-toggle="dropdown">

                  Accout <b ></b>

                </a>

                //<ul >

                  <li><%= link_to "Profile", current_user  %></li>

                  <li><%= link_to "Settings", '#'  %></li>

                  <li > </li>

                  <li>

                        <%= link_to "Sign out", signout_path, method: "delete"  %>

                  </li>

                //</ul>

              //</li>

            <% else %>

            <li><%= link_to "Sign in", signin_path %></li>

            <%  end  %>

          </ul>

        </nav>

    </div>

  </div>

</header>

 

来源:http://www.cnblogs.com/aguncn/p/4360933.html

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